O Que São Plaquetas

O Que São Plaquetas – Introduction: Platelets play a major role in the process of tissue response to injury, influence primary homeostasis and coagulation, and coordinately release bioactive molecules important for angiogenesis and tissue regeneration. The non-injectable clinical use of platelet-derived products such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is based on their ability to maximize cell regeneration processes in lesions that are normally difficult to repair.

Objective: This review addresses the characteristics and potential clinical uses of platelets and their derivatives and describes the legal framework in the Brazilian context.

O Que São Plaquetas

O Que São Plaquetas

METHODS: PubMed, Virtual Health Library, Anvisa, and his website from the Ministry of Health were reviewed between September 2017 and January 2018.

Análise De Hemograma

Results: PRP is a platelet-derived product, cannot be chemically defined, and its clinical applications described here are not orthologous.

CONCLUSIONS: Thus, the application of PRP is a highly effective way to standardize protocols, create quality control standards (traceability, efficacy, drug monitoring), and adequately control its use by competent institutions of the organization. It can be considered cell therapy.More security is required. on using it

Introduction: Platelets play a central role in tissue response to injury, homeostasis, and thrombus formation. They also rapidly and coordinately release bioactive molecules important for angiogenesis and tissue regeneration. The non-injectable clinical use of platelet-derived products such as platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is based on their ability to maximize cell regeneration in lesions with repair problems.

Objective: This review addresses the characteristics and potential clinical applications of platelets and their derivatives and describes the legal framework for their use in Brazil.

Agitador E Homogeneizador De Plaquetas |homogeneização

METHODS: Between September 2017 and January 2018, the databases of PubMed, Brazilian Virtual Health Library, Anvisa, and the Brazilian Ministry of Health were reviewed.

RESULTS: PRP is a chemically undefined platelet-derived product and its proposed clinical use is not orthologous.

CONCLUSION: Therefore, the application of PRP can be considered an advanced cell therapy. Therefore, standardization of protocols and establishment of quality control standards such as traceability, efficacy and pharmacovigilance are necessary to control their use by competent regulatory bodies and to ensure their safety in use.

O Que São Plaquetas

Platelets are anucleated cells that circulate in the blood and are derived from megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. 70% of platelets reside in the bloodstream and 30% in the spleen, with an estimated life expectancy of 10 days. Platelets play a central role in the process of tissue response to injury, acting at all stages of coagulation, inflammation, regeneration and healing. Circulating platelets have a simple morphology but a complex structure of granules, channels and organelles that can rapidly and coordinately release bioactive molecules important in injury response and healing processes. Its cell membrane is highly rich in glycoproteins and molecular signaling receptors that enable communication and interaction with various molecules and cells.

Porque As Plaquetas Aumentam

Platelets (platelets) are formed by cytoplasmic fragmentation of megakaryocytes in the bloodstream. Still within the bone marrow, hematopoietic stem cells (hemoblasts) undergo a process of cell proliferation and differentiation that gives rise to all progenitor cells of the circulating blood cells.

Myeloid progenitor cells, derived from hemocytoblasts, give rise to granulocytes, erythrocytes, megakaryocytes, monocytes, and other myeloid cells.

In response to cytokines, primarily thrombopoietin, myeloid progenitor cells in the myeloid niche differentiate into highly proliferating diploid cells called megakaryoblasts. They initiate a process of endomitotic proliferation that increases the volume of the cytoplasm and the number of nuclei and organelles, but without cell division. In this state, polyploid cells (promegakaryocytes) are 5–10 times larger than normal cells (less than 50–100 microns in diameter) and highly granular. These cells contain multiple nuclei, high levels of RNA, prominent ribosomes, abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, platelet peroxidase, as well as alpha granules, dense granules, and primary limiting membranes. The now mature megakaryocytes form protoplatelet cytoplasmic projections in the sinusoidal vasculature and give rise to circulating platelets.

Summary of megakaryocyte development and platelet release. In the bone marrow, hematopoietic stem cells differentiate into myeloid progenitor cells. These progenitor cells differentiate into megakaryoblasts and then into megakaryocytes. Finally, mature megakaryocytes send protoplatelet processes to the vena cava where platelets are released into the bloodstream.

Las Plaquetas Promueven La Inflamación

Platelet production requires profound structural changes in the megakaryocyte cytoskeleton. The extensive internal boundary of the cytoplasm of mature megakaryocytes serves as a reservoir for platelet formation in extensions called protoplatelet processes. Some platelet proteins, such as von Willebrand factor and fibrinogen receptor, are formed at the membrane of megakaryocytes, whereas some organelle and granule-packaged proteins translocate from the cytoplasm into the proplatelet process. increase.

Two models are currently accepted to explain platelet formation. In the first step, platelet release occurs by sprouting from the tips of major platelet processes such as assembly lines. Thus, proplatelet processes pass through the sinus cavity, where they are separated into individual platelets by blood flow. In the second model, preformed regions in the inner membrane of megakaryocytes define platelets that are already packaged in the cytoplasm. They are therefore released by direct fragmentation of the cytoplasm in the protopallet processes.

The primary function of platelets is to stimulate a series of responses to vascular injury aimed at protecting vascular integrity. Vascular integrity plays a central role in the process of immediate inhibition of blood evacuation (homeostasis). Platelets circulate within the blood vessel, making occasional contact with the vessel wall. The endothelium that lines the normal wall is continuous and coated with complex carbohydrates that prevent platelets from sticking together and maintain free circulation. Acute injury to the endothelium exposes subendothelial collagen that strongly adheres to platelets.

O Que São Plaquetas

Such adhesion occurs through the binding of von Willebrand factor, which is associated with subendothelial collagen, to its ligand on the platelet surface membrane. This immediately induces platelet adhesion and activation, followed by local migration of more circulating platelets. Release of tissue factor into the circulation by the subendothelium also activates the thrombin cascade, disrupts fibrinogen, and forms a fibrin network, resulting in rapid thrombus formation (extrinsic coagulation pathway). Platelet plugs (thrombi) are therefore formed by a function of primary homeostasis.

O Sangue E Seus Componentes

During activation, platelets secrete several important substances to maintain blood clots and initiate tissue inflammatory processes. Primarily released from alpha granules: platelet factor IV, clotting factors, plasminogen activator inhibitor, and von Willebrand factor. They bind and activate the adhesion proteins thrombospondin and vitronectin to form new platelets from circulation into the clot. ATP, ADP, and calcium are released from dense granules. Platelet aggregation also induces intracellular signals involved in cellular responses such as the production of serotonin, ADP, and TXA2, enhancing platelet responses. Other cytokines released by alpha granules act on proinflammatory signaling to direct monocyte activation and differentiation and neutrophil adhesion.

In late-stage and chronic situations, platelets play a role in the process of absorbing immune cells, forming new blood vessels (angiogenesis), and tissue renewal and regeneration. Activated platelets release a series of factors that stimulate metabolism and proliferation from resting and motile cells in the bloodstream. These factors are known as “cell growth factors” and are designed to promote the repair and regeneration of damaged tissue.

Activation of coagulation and fibrin network formation is rapid and short-lived, whereas growth factor production is long-lasting and maintained by cascade activation of inflammatory factors and platelets recruited from circulation. The factors produced are associated with the fibrin network, collagen, and extracellular matrix glycoconjugates and sustain this regenerative process over the long term. While proinflammatory factors initiate local inflammatory processes, the action of angiogenic platelet factors continues, stimulating endothelial proliferation and new capillary formation. In addition to tissue nutrition and oxygenation, the vascular network ensures a supply of circulating progenitor cells that permeate body fluids. Vascular stabilizing factors recruit pericytes (resident progenitor cells that migrate along the ventral side of the vessel wall) and trigger mural cell proliferation in larger vessels. Finally, growth factors involved in the proliferation of various cell types ensure extensive tissue regeneration.

Ensuring homeostasis (primary function) and facilitating tissue repair and regeneration (secondary function) are active in different contexts and times. Primary functions work mainly in acute and immediate situations, whereas secondary functions work in chronic and delayed situations. Both may contain similar components, but the logic and sequence of operations differ, but are complementary. Not surprisingly, the coordinated production and release of this series of platelet tissue regeneration factors has attracted attention and can be exploited in many areas of regenerative medicine. You can use its source, platelets

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