O Acumulo De Capitais A Moder – SOCIOLOGY AS A SCIENCE In the context of scientific knowledge, sociology appears as a set of ideas that try to discuss the process of building modern society. Sociology itself is a result of the industrial revolution, which is why it is called the “crisis science”. Sociology as a “science of society” did not emerge suddenly, it did not arise from the ideas of a single author. It is the result of the entire natural and social knowledge and thought that XIX. has developed since the century. xv (disintegration of feudal society / rise of capitalism).
INFO: Maritime Expansion Protestant Reformation Formation of People States Foreign Trade Maritime Expansion = Great shipping and foreign trade. ↓ Expansion of the worldview of European peoples. Redefining what it means to be European and how to think about the world.
O Acumulo De Capitais A Moder
Expansion of trade in new goods (silk, spices, tropical products: sugar, corn, tobacco, coffee). ↓ Market expansion with worldwide features. The development of the money economy at the expense of the capital accumulation of the commercial bourgeoisie. CITIZENSHIP OF THE MODERN STATE Centralization of judicial power Centralization of armed forces. Administrative centralization.
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Development of textile production, mining, steel industry ↓ Domestic and foreign trade. ↓ PROTESTANT REFORMATION Valuing rational knowledge over revelation ↓ Reason dominates and becomes the main element of knowing the world. New forms of learning about nature and society are based on experience and observation. Thinkers representing the new direction:
5 Galileo Galilei ( ) John Locke (1632 – 1704) Niccolo Machiavelli ( ) Francis Bacon ( )
By the end of the 17th century, the merchant bourgeoisie, consisting of merchants and bankers in most European countries, had become a powerful class, mostly due to economic ties with the rulers. Commercial capital expanded to another field of activity, manufacturing production was gradually organized. With the development of production, production managers became more interested in the development of production techniques. Their goal was to produce with fewer people and maximize profits.
The work done by men by hand or with tools was then carried out by machines and the volume of product production was increased. The availability of the steam engine spurred the development of mechanical engineering, which in turn encouraged the entire industry to focus on iron and later steel production. We have also noticed that mechanical work is used more and more in parallel with manual work. Machine production was complemented by wage labor, including the use of women and child labor in ever-increasing proportions.
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9 The transformations occurring in the sphere of production, the emergence of new forms of political organization and the demand for people’s representation give very specific characteristics to this century, when thinkers are looking for different ways, thinking about reality, trying to explain it. . eg: Montesquieu David Hume
The strengthening of capitalism in Europe in the 19th century will provide the elements that serve as the basis for the development of sociology as a specific science. Among others, Saint-Simon ( ), G.W. The thought of F. Hegel ( ) and David Ricardo ( ) will be the link for Auguste Comte ( ) and Karl Marx ( ) to develop their thoughts about society in a fundamentally different way. Auguste Comte breaks with early family, monarchy and Catholic traditions and becomes a republican with liberal ideals.
12 All his works are full of post-revolutionary French events. Defending the spirit of 1789 and criticizing the restoration of the monarchy, Comte was primarily interested in how to organize a new society that reigned in confusion and complete chaos. Comte proposed a complete reform of the society in which he lived, starting with the complete intellectual reform of man. Thus, by changing the way people think with the methods of modern sciences (“Positive philosophy”), institutional reform will continue. Sociology, like other sciences, must always try to reconcile the static and dynamic aspects of the natural world, or between order and progress in relation to society, since the latter is subordinate to the former.
A. Comte’s influence mainly covers the entire republican tradition, Europe and Latin America. In Brazil, this is very clear in the motto stamped on the national flag. “COUNTING AND PROGRESS”. Comte’s main works: Course of Positive Philosophy, 6 volumes, ( ) Discourse on the Positive Spirit, (1844) System of Positive Politics, 4 volumes, ( ) including Positivist Catechism (1852) Subjective Synthesis (1856)
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Although we call capitalism an economic system, it is necessary to take into account that the way of production directly affects political, social and economic aspects, that is, the system affects the organization of all areas of society.
In this text, we explain how capitalism developed and its stages. Did you find it interesting? So come with us!
The capitalist system begins to develop with the decline of the existing production system, feudalism. Feudalism began in the 5th century and lasted until the 15th century when capitalism began to emerge. You can remember the features of the feudal system, but at the end of this period, let’s remember how it worked and how capitalism began to develop.
Capitalismo: O Que é E Como Funciona O Modo De Produção Capitalista?
Feudalism was a system of economic, political, and social organization based on land ownership and estates in Western Europe during the Middle Ages. Estates were static social classes—there was no mobility—that is, people were born and died in the same social class.
During feudalism, production was characterized by self-sufficiency. Manors produced what was consumed locally, there was no trade, no coins. When exchanging goods, goods were exchanged for goods, not money. However, as the population grows, cities and commercial activities develop, it facilitates currency exchange and expands sources of income.
It was at this point that free fairs emerged, places where people marketed their products – very similar to fairs that still exist today. With the development of commercial activity, a new economic class – the bourgeoisie – is formed. Thus, if it was previously a society of static social classes, the emergence of the bourgeoisie disrupted this economic-social order, as it ensured the social mobility of those who developed commercial activity.
Unlike feudal organization, commerce was built around free and paid labor. This change was one of the main events for the transition from the Middle Ages to the modern era, the decline of feudalism and the beginning of the first stage of capitalism.
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The stage of commercial capitalism is also called precapitalism. At that time there was no industrialization, the system was based on trade. The economic model adopted during this period was mercantilism, which had the following main features:
At that time, it was believed that the existing wealth in the world could not be increased, but redistributed. Thus, countries tried to accumulate wealth by protecting the local economy and collecting metal from trade with other countries. During this period, European countries exploited the resources of their colonies, as in the Americas.
The transition from commercial capitalism to industrial capitalism took place amid technological and political revolutions. The Industrial Revolution begins in England in 1760, and its main stage is the introduction of the steam engine, which begins the transition from manufacturing to industrial production.
Industrial production became necessary because population growth and urban sprawl made it necessary to produce and distribute products more efficiently and on a larger scale.
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The revolutions were also political in nature. In 1789, the French Revolution began, a movement that sought to abolish the political, social, and economic organization then in force; which offers privileges to a small part of the population and gives people few rights.
At this stage of capitalism, power passed into the hands of the bourgeoisie, which began to grow with the revival of trade. During industrial capitalism, the economy was based on economic liberalism. This school of thought, whose main thinker was Adam Smith, advocated minimal state and non-state intervention in the economy. According to its advocates, the law of supply and demand and market competition would guarantee better outcomes for society as a whole.
For centuries, the existing method of production under industrial capitalism has allowed productivity to increase and the cost of production to decrease.