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The Latin alphabet, also known as Latin, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world.
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And it is the alphabet used to write the Portuguese language and most of the languages of Western and Central Europe and European colonies. It began in the 7th century BC. In the Lazio region (present-day Lazio, Italy), hence the name “Latin”. During the 19th and 20th centuries, the Latin alphabet also became the preferred alphabet for a significant number of other languages, especially the indigenous languages of European-colonized regions that did not have their own writing system.
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The Latin alphabet, which the Romans used from the 7th century BC. C., derived from the Etruscan alphabet, which in turn developed from the Greek alphabet.
Of the 26 Etruscan letters, the Romans adopted 21: A, B, C, D, E, F, Z, H, I, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, V ., X.
The letter ⟨C⟩ was a variation of gamma, which the Etruscans used alternatively to represent the sounds /k/ and /g/. 3rd century BC It was replaced by ⟨G⟩, a modified version of ⟨C⟩, created by Spurius Carvillius to represent the voiced-only variant /g/.
In the 1st century BC, with the Roman conquest of Greece, the letters ⟨Y⟩ and ⟨Z⟩ were re-adopted and placed at the end of the alphabet, to write words with Greek roots.
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In the Middle Ages, three letters were also introduced. ⟨J⟩ arose as a variation of ⟨I⟩, lengthened in 14th-century manuscripts, especially at the beginning of words, to indicate the use of consonants. ⟨U⟩ was similarly distinguished from ⟨V⟩ to represent its vowel. ⟨W⟩, originally a ligature of two Vs, was added to represent Germanic sounds.
The alphabet used by the Romans consisted only of capital letters (or capital letters). Small letters, or small letters, were developed in the Middle Ages from the Roman cursive script, first as an uncorrected script, and then as lowercase letters. Ancient Roman letters were used to represent official writing and written documents. Languages that use the Latin alphabet typically use capital letters to begin paragraphs, sentences, and proper names. Capitalization rules have changed over time and differ slightly between different languages. English, for example, capitalized all nouns, which German still does.
With the expansion of the Roman Empire, the Latin alphabet, after the Latin alphabet, crossed the borders of the Italian peninsula and spread to the countries around the Mediterranean Sea. The eastern half of the Roman Empire, including Greece, Asia Minor, Pontus, and Egypt, continued to use Greek as the “lingua franca”, but Latin was widely used in the Western Roman Empire. The Romance languages, which are derived from Vulgar Latin, never stopped using this script.
Furthermore, the spread of Western Christianity during the Middle Ages spread Latin and its alphabet among speakers of Germanic languages (replacing Runes), Celtic (replacing Ogham), and other previously unwritten languages such as Baltic, Uralic, and partly Slavic. Languages (such as Polish and Czech).
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In the modern era, Latin began to spread to other continents, leading to the languages of the great travel: Castilian, Portuguese, English, French and Dutch. In 1558, less than a century after the arrival of Europeans in the Americas, the Maya recorded their people’s history in Roman script in the Popol Vuh, instead of ancient Maya hieroglyphics.
In Asia, however, Latin competed with other writing systems. In the 19th century, Vietnam, then under French rule, stopped using Chinese characters to write Vietnamese, officially switching to the Romanized Quốc Ngữ script.
The English and Dutch administrations of Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore did the same, replacing other writing systems used in the region, such as the Brahmin script and the Arabic alphabet (in the Javanese system), with Romani (Romanian).
In the Slavic world, the Latin alphabet competed for space with the Cyrillic alphabet. The choice between one and the other almost always depends on a religious, political or ideological choice. In the 19th century, the Romanian language in Romania, an Orthodox Christian country, changed from Cyrillic to Latin.
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Serbo-Croatian has been written in Latin in Croatia since the 19th century, co-existing with Cyrillic during Yugoslavia’s rule and later established as the sole official script of the Latin script.
The situation is similar in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia, where both lines were adopted. In some regions of the Soviet Union, after its collapse in 1991, some countries switched from Cyrillic to Latin, notably Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, and the Turkophone Republic of Turkmenistan, adopting a new script for the Azeri, Uzbek, and Turkmen languages. .
Latin is used in most Indo-European languages, including all Romance, Celtic, Baltic and Germanic groups (except Yiddish) and some Slavic groups. Geographically, this includes Western Europe, the Americas, and much of sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania. In addition, during the colonization process, many other languages and places adopted the Latin script, with an emphasis on the Turkic languages of Turkey and the Caucasus, and Malay speakers in Malaysia and Indonesia.
The International Phonetic Alphabet, created in the late 19th century as a standard notation for representing sounds in all languages, was also based on Latin. However, AFI includes symbols from some Cyrillic, Greek and, in general, other systems.
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Given the international importance of the Latin script, many languages that use other script systems have official transcription standards for Latin/Latin, a process known as Romanization. These include the Pinyin system for standard Mandarin, the Romaji system for Japanese, and the Imperial system for Thai.
The Latin alphabet of the ISO standard (encoded in ISO/IEC 646), also officially adopted in the Portuguese language, consists of 26 letters: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J , K., L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, V, X, Y, Z.
However, to accommodate the different languages in which it is used, the alphabet absorbed many changes and extensions, combining letters with ligatures, replacing them with diacritical marks, characterizing pairs or triplets of letters. Assigning tasks or finally, completely absorbing letters. the alphabet For a complete list, see List of alphabets derived from the Latin alphabet.
Ligature glyphs available in Adobe Caslon Pro font. In the left frame, ligatures that have only a stylistic role; On the right side, which were seen as different characters.
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A ligature is the joining of two or more letters into a new glyph or sign. Ligature can only be stylistic, as well as creating new letters that represent certain sounds. In Portuguese, some stylistic ligatures may be used (depending on the species); However, letters formed from ligatures are not part of the vernacular.
On the other hand, some northern European languages use letters derived from ligatures, such as ⟨Æ/æ⟩ (from ⟨AE⟩), ⟨Œ/œ⟩ (from ⟨OE⟩), and ⟨ß⟩ (from ⟨z⟩). or ⟨ ſs⟩, a combination of long S with ⟨s⟩ or ⟨z⟩). In addition, some ligatures form glyphs that are used as logograms, such as ⟨&⟩ (derived from the Latin et), which represent the word and or any additional conjunction.
Another way to represent new sounds in the Latin alphabet is to use digraphs, that is, pairs of letters that together represent different sounds that the letters represent separately. The Portuguese language uses many digraphs in the Latin script, such as ⟨ch⟩, ⟨nh⟩, ⟨lh⟩, ⟨ss⟩, and ⟨rr⟩.
Examples from other languages include the Spanish ⟨ll⟩ or the Dutch vowel digraph ⟨ij⟩. Similarly, a trigraph is a set of three letters that represent a new sound. Although they do not exist in Portuguese, there are some popular trigraphs such as German ⟨sch⟩ or Milanese ⟨oeu⟩.
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In some languages, dictionaries and trigraphs are treated as independent letters of the alphabet, including classification in the dictionary. For example, in Castilian Spanish, the digraphs ⟨ll⟩ and ⟨ch⟩ were considered independent letters until 2010, and words beginning with them had an independent entry in the dictionary until 1994.
As with digraphs, digraphs may or may not be recognized as independent letters and may or may not be counted separately for alphabetical order. In Portuguese, ⟨ç⟩ is recognized as a letter in use, but is not a stressed vowel;
In Swedish, on the other hand, the vowels with diacritics ⟨å⟩, ⟨ä⟩ and ⟨ö⟩ are considered full syllables.
There are letters from different alphabets which, because they represent sounds different from those contained in the basic Latin alphabet, have been added to express certain languages. For example, Old English added runes vane ⟨Ƿ/ƿ⟩, thorn
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