Modulo De Elasticidade Do Aço – What is stainless steel? Presentation of support for professors in architecture/civil engineering Chapter 04 What is stainless steel?
What is stainless steel? 100 years of stainless steel (in English) (in Portuguese) Stainless steel – built to last (in English) (in Portuguese) Stainless steel – protected to last (in English) (in Portuguese)
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Stainless steels are metal alloys containing at least 10.5% chromium. What is stainless steel? Surface layer ~ 2nm thick Surface oxide (rust) > 20μm thick Passive film forms in minutes Corrosion resistance Carbon stainless steel 11% Chromium Chemical resistance Resistance limit Increasing the amount of Chromium increases efficiency of passive film…but there are other important factors affecting corrosion resistance (see chapter 3) chromium content (%)
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What is stainless steel? Subgroups: Cr-Ni Standard EN /AISI 304 Cr: 18 Ni: 9 Fe: Balance Cr-Ni-Mo Standard EN /AISI 316 Ni 10 Mo: 2.5 Typical properties: Excellent corrosion resistance, increases with alloy content. . but may be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in high temperature and chloride environments (eg swimming pools) High ductility and impact strength at all temperatures (including very low temperatures) Strength of material can be added by working cold (but not by heat). treatment) ) Excellent fire resistance Excellent cold and heat treatment properties (ductility, elongation) Easy to weld (TIG, MIG) The most popular and still used today Color: Corrosion resistance Properties mechanical production.
What is stainless steel? Standard classification: Cr-Mn-Ni-N Standard EN /AISI 201 Cr: 17 Mn: 7 Ni: 4 N:0.15 Fe: Balanced Standard properties: Low corrosion resistance … but more susceptible to stress cracking for corrosion (SCC) ) and pitting, especially when Ni and Cr levels are low High strength Poor cold creep behavior due to high hardness Poor planability More difficult to weld Cost less Austenitic Cr-Ni … but more than Ferritic Cr Used mainly in Indian and Chinese Paints. : Resistance to corrosion Mechanical properties Production
Fe: Balance Cr-Mo Standard EN1.4521/AISI 444 Cr: 18 Mo: 2 Ti+Ni: 0.4 What is stainless steel? Typical properties: Not affected by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) Good ductility (but less than austenitic) Not suitable for use at very low temperatures Strength can be increased by cold working (but not heat treatment) Good cold forming properties : (under spring effect, less tool wear but less elongation, requires a different drawing process than austenite) Hardened grades (with Nb and/or Ti) are easier to weld (TIG, MIG) Offers good performance/cost for many applications and increasingly used Color: Rust. resistance Mechanical properties Manufacturing
What is stainless steel? Subgroups: C-Cr Standard EN1.4021/AISI 420 Cr: 13 C:0.2 Fe: Balance C-Cr-Ni Standard EN1.4057/AISI431 Cr: 16 Ni: 2 C: 0.2 Moisture Hardness Standard EN1.4502: CrAIS 4502: Ni : 4 Cu:4 Typical properties: Acceptable for good corrosion resistance, increases with alloy content High strength obtained by heat treatment (not cold work). A small drawback. Not suitable for very low temperatures Not suitable for forming, often processed by machining Can be welded (TIG, MIG) but usually requires heat treatment after welding Used as a corrosion-resistant engineering steel Color: Resistant to corrosion Mechanical properties Production.
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What is stainless steel? Subgroups: Cr-Ni Standard EN1.4362 Cr: 23 Ni: 4 Fe: Balance Cr-Ni-Mo Standard EN1.4462 Cr: 22 Ni: 5 Mo: 3 Typical properties: Excellent corrosion resistance, increases with the content of alloy No stress corrosion cracking High strength, good ductility Strength can be increased by cold working (but not heat treatment) Good cold and hot forming properties (ductility, elongation) Weldable (TIG, MIG) Provides excellent fusion Resistance of corrosion and mechanical properties Color: Corrosion resistance. Mechanical property Manufacturing
Modulus of elasticity Gpa Coefficient of thermal expansion 10-6°K-1 Thermal conductivity W m-1°K-1 Weight Ferromagnetism density Kg/dm³ Cr-Ni Austenitic 210 18 15 No 7, 8 Cr-Mn Austenitic 17 Cr 2 Ferritic Yes 1 7, 7 Cr-Ni (Mo)-N Duplex 14 Intermediate Cr-C Martensitic 215 30 Carbon steel 12 Copper 135 380 8.3 Aluminum 70 22 230 3.9 Glass 65 9 1.7 2.5 Concrete
What is stainless steel? Main regulatory bodies: ISO EN ASTM/AISI UNS JIS Notes: Most countries refer to the above standards, which are widely accepted. Most assessments are the same at all levels. List of American standards: reference 11 List of European standards: reference 12 Correspondence tables available: reference
12 Main types of stainless steel used in architecture and construction: EN (for sheet/plate/tape)16, 17 What is stainless steel? ASTM UNS Class C wt% Cr Ni Mo Other common uses3, 4 4003 S40977 0, 02 11, 5 0, 5 – Heated and unheated interiors 4016 430 0, 04 16, 5 Interior decorative coatings 4509 3 9329 Tib 31 Tib. Indoor roofs and rain gutters – often tinned with a patina 4521 444 17, 8 2, 1 indoor plumbing market 4301 4307 4306 304 304L 18, 118, 118, 2 8, 1 10 in normal environments of industries far from the coast. 4401 4404 4571 316 1616LTi 17, 2 16, 8 10, 9 use in permanent rain, areas with coastal climates, polluted industrial atmospheres or near roads where deicing salt is a problem 20, 0 24, 8 6 18 5 0 N, Cu road tunnels and indoor ponds
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The main types of stainless steel used in architecture and construction: EN (rods / wires / profiles)18 What is stainless steel? Class ASTM UNS C UIVEL% CR NI MO Other Common use6 4003 S40977 0.02 11.5 0.5 – 4016 430 0.04 16.5 Slate Hooks 4542 630 16.0 4.0 Cus, 4 Cus, 4 Anchor 330 4567 304 304l 304n 304l 18,11,18 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 17, 1 1 8. . , 6 2, 8
What is stainless steel? High Ni prices favor the replacement of CrNi types with Cr-Mn or Cr Duplex types, which are currently marginal, expected to grow in the next 15
16 Stainless steel production in kt (metric) Other: Brazil, Russia, South Korea, Indonesia What is stainless steel? 16
19 References (1/2) What is stainless steel? D. Peckner Handbook of Stainless Steels Hardcover – June, 1977 ISBN-13: ISBN-10: X New « 200 series steels »: Opportunity or threat to the stainless steel image? Solution of ferritic Martensitic stainless steel Duplex stainless steel:
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20 References (2/2) What is stainless steel? Chemical composition of flat stainless steel products for general purposes EN : Chemical composition of long stainless steel products for general purposes to EN : EN :2009 Stainless steel. Technical requirements for the delivery of sheet/plate and strip of corrosion-resistant steel for construction purposes Flat products in stainless steel for construction – grades in EN are defined: EN : 2009 Stainless steel. Technical requirements for the delivery of bars, rods, wires, sections and hollow products of corrosion-resistant steel for construction purposes. ISSF Publication “Stainless Steel in Statistics”:
Mateus Henrique Mezzomo University of Passo Fundo (UPF), ROD BR 285, KM 292, 7 – CEP: 99052-900, Campus I , São José, Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil. email: [email protected], [email protected] Corresponding author: Mateus Henrique Mezzomo http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4049-9689 Amauri Gomes de Moraes University of Passo Fundo (UPF), ROD BR 285 , KM 292, 7 – CEP: 99052-900, Campus I , São José, Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil. email: [email protected], [email protected]://orcid.org/0000-0002-8841-5125 About the authors
Many materials are subjected to forces or loads when they are used. In these cases, it is important to know the properties of the material, including the modulus of elasticity, in order to design parts and assemblies to avoid any resulting deformation.