Juniper – While every effort is made to follow the index style rules, there may be inconsistencies. Consult the appropriate physical therapist or other resources if you have any questions.

), a genus of about 60 to 70 species of evergreen trees or shrubs of the cypress family (Cupressaceae), distributed throughout the northern region. Several species are cultivated as ornamentals and are useful for their wood.



Juniper leaves are needle-like. The mature leaves are awl-shaped, spreading, and arranged in twos or threes. Some species have small-sized leaves, often with a sebaceous gland, pressed close to the branches square or round. The reproductive and male and female parts are usually placed on separate plants. The red-brown or blue cones are fleshy and berry-like and often have a grayish waxy coating. They grow in one to three seasons and contain 1 to 12 seeds, usually 3.

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The galls that junipers produce as a reaction to fungal infection are known as cedar galls. This fungus, cedar rust, completes its life cycle on members of the apple family of the flowering plant family Rosaceae, which includes many species of trees and shrubs that are commercially valuable as fruit and ornamental plants. Therefore, the growth of junipers around apple orchards and plantations of related species is discouraged to avoid damaging or losing these important crops.

), a spreading shrub, is widely distributed on rocky soils throughout the northern region. Many ornamental cultivars have been developed.

) of eastern North America. This species is an invasion of glades, fields, prairies, and other grassy areas in parts of its range; therefore, some botanists and land managers consider it a forest problem.

The berry-like cones of the common juniper are used to flavor foods and alcoholic beverages, especially gin, for which it is named after

Juniper Berry Benefits & Side Effects |

. Juniper “fruits” have a spicy aroma and a slightly sour taste. Used with pork, they remove the game flavor. They are also used to flavor sauces and fillings, in marinades for meat, and to flavor liqueurs and bitters.

Distilled from the wood and leaves of various species, juniper oil is used in perfumes and in medicines as diuretics.

Aromatic trees of some species are made into cabinets, walls, and pens. Eastern red cedar is most commonly used for linen closets and for cedar chests, as it repels moths and other pests.


Of the cypress family Cupressaceae. Depending on the taxonomy, between 50 and 67 species of junipers are distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, from the Arctic, south to tropical Africa, in parts of western, central, and southern Asia, east to east- eastern Tibet in the Old World, and in the mountains of Central America. The highest juniper tree is found at an altitude of 4,900 meters (16,100 ft) in southeastern Tibet and the northern Himalayas, forming one of the highest tree lines on earth.

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Junipers vary in size and shape, from tall trees, 20–40 meters (66–131 ft) tall, to columnar or small spreading trees with long, branching branches. They are perennial with needle-like and/or scale-like leaves. They can be monoecious or dioecious. The female seed cones are highly variable, with fleshy, fruit-like scales fused to form a berry-like structure (galbulus), 4–27 millimeters (3 ⁄16 -1+ 1 ⁄16 in) across. long, with one. up to 12 wingless, hard-shelled seeds. In some species these “berries” are red-brown or orange, but in most they are blue; They are often fragrant and can be used as a perfume. Seed development time varies between species from 6 to 18 months after pollination. Male cones are similar to other Cupressaceae, with 6 to 20 cones.

In hardiness zones 7 to 10, junipers can flower and release seeds several times a year. Different junipers bloom in the fall, while many pollinate from early winter to late spring.

Detail of Juniperus chinsis shoots, with (needle-like) leaves (left), mature leaves and immature male cones (right)

Many junipers (eg J. chinsis, J. Virginiana) have two types of leaves; seeds and some tree branches that grow needle-like leaves

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2 to 4 mm (3 ⁄32 to 5 ⁄32 in). When young leaves occur on mature plants, they are often found on shady shoots, with adult foliage in full sunlight. The leaves of the fast-growing ‘rope’ shoots are often intermediate between young and adult leaves.

In some species (e.g. J. communis, J. squamata), all the foliage is young needle-like, without the scale leaves. In some of these (for example, J. communis), the needles are connected at the base, while in others (for example, J. squamata), the needles are loosely attached to the wood. The needle leaves of junipers are hard and sharp, making the leaf foliage very thick to handle. This can be a valuable identification characteristic in plants, because the leaves of cypresses (Cupressus, Chamaecyparis) and other related trees, otherwise very similar, are smooth and not thorny.

Junipers are gymnosperms, which means they have seeds, but no flowers or fruit. Depending on the species, the seeds they produce take 1 to 3 years to mature. The impermeable seed coat prevents water from entering and protects the embryo from dispersing. It can also result in a long dormancy that is often broken by the skin of the seed coat. Dispersal can occur by complete ingestion by frugivores and mammals. The resistance of the seed coat allows it to pass through the digestive system without destruction along the way. These seeds remain for a long time, because they can disperse over long distances in a few years.


Juniper needles, tall. On the left, J. communis (Juniperus sect. Juniperus, ‘combined’ needles at the base). Right, J. chinsis (Juniperus species. Sabina, fused needles are easy to extract, not spreading at the base)

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Gus is divided into sections of different shapes. A system based on molecular phylogenetic data from 2013 and earlier uses three sections:

Junipers of leaf size; Older leaves are the most symmetrical, similar to those of Cupressus species, in opposite pairs or three lobes, and the needle-like leaves are not joined at the base (even in some of them only leaves as a needle; see below right). Emotionally, all other junipers are here, although they form a paraphyletic group.

Juniper plants thrive in many areas. Lahaul Valley junipers can be found in dry, rocky locations planted on rocky soil. Grazing animals and villages are rapidly depleting these crops. There are many special characteristics of the leaves and wood of this plant that cause the villagers to cut down these trees and use them.

Also, western juniper seeds, a specific species of juniper, are found in forests where there are large work sites. Junipers are known to surround work areas so they are exposed to rain.

Identifying Juniper Trees And Shrubs

Dwindling fire and lack of grazing cattle are the two main reasons for western juniper’s adoption. The invasion of junipers causes changes in the environment. For example, the ecosystem of other species that used to live in the environment and farm animals has been harmed.

As junipers increase in population, the decline in tree species such as montane sagebrush and asp. Among the juniper trees themselves, competition increases, which means less berry production.

Herbaceous cover decreases and junipers are often mistaken for weeds. As a result, many farmers have cut back juniper trees or cut them off completely. However, this reduction did not result in any significant difference in the animals’ survival. Some small animals find it beneficial to have juniper trees with skin, while cutting down the tire tree is not good.


Some junipers are susceptible to Gymnosporangium rust disease and it can be a big problem for those growing apple trees, another host for the disease.

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Juniper is an exceptional food plant for the larvae of some moths and butterflies, including Bucculatrix inusitata, carpet juniper, Chionodes electella, Chionodes viduella, juniper pug, and belle pine. The tortrix moth Cydia duplicatana feeds on bark around wounds or cankers.

Junipers are among the most popular conifers grown as ornamentals for parks and gardens. They have been cultivated for many years to produce many designs, in terms of color, shape and size. They include some more dwarf (small) cultivars. They are also used for bonsai. Some species found in agriculture include:

In dry areas, juniper nut is easily inhaled and can be inhaled into the lungs. This product can also irritate the skin and cause contact dermatitis. Cross allergic reactions are common between juniper nut and nut of all cypress species.

Monoecious juniper plants are very allergic, scoring 9 out of 10 on the Ogr Plant Allergy Scale (OPALS). Fully male juniper seeds have an OPALS score of 10 and release copious amounts of nut. By contrast, all-female juniper plants have an OPALS rating of 1 and are considered “allergy-fighting.”

All About Juniper Berries: A Very Tasty Spice

Slices of the Juniperus communis tree, with an American pny for size, showing the narrow growth rings of the species.


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