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Dokuz Eylül üniversitesi Yatay Geçiş

Dokuz Eylül üniversitesi Yatay Geçiş

The Gaia hypothesis, also known as the Gaia principle, suggests that all organisms and inorganic environments on Earth are tightly integrated to form a single, complex, self-regulating system that supports life on the planet. In other words, it is a view that holds that the planet itself is a living organism. His name is in Greek mythology.

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Scientists investigating the Gaia hypothesis focus on how the evolution of the biosphere and life forms toward a predominant homeostasis (internal preservation) contributes to the balance of global temperature, ocean salinity, atmospheric oxygen, and other habitability factors. The Gaia hypothesis was formulated by chemist James Lovelock and developed in the 1970s by microbiologist Lynn Margulies with Lovelock. Although initially viewed with hostility by the scientific community, it is now studied in the disciplines of geophysiology and Earth system sciences; some of its principles have also been adopted in fields such as biogeochemistry and systems ecology. This ecological hypothesis has also inspired analogies and various interpretations in the social sciences, politics, and religion under the dark philosophy and movement.

Dokuz Eylül üniversitesi Yatay Geçiş

The Gaia hypothesis suggests that the Earth is a complex system of rigid self-regulation as an evolving system that includes the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and pedosphere. The hypothesis suggests that this system, called Gaia, is searching for an optimal physical and chemical environment for modern life as a whole.

Gaia evolves through a cybernetic feedback system unconsciously controlled by the biota, and many of the processes necessary for viable conditions in full homeostasis depend on the interaction of living forms, especially microorganisms, with inorganic elements. These processes form a global control system that regulates Earth’s surface temperature, atmospheric composition, and ocean salinity, maintained by the state of global thermodynamic instability of the Earth system.

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By Skylife Magazine

The existence of planetary homeostasis under the influence of living forms has previously been observed in the field of biogeochemistry and is being investigated in other fields such as Earth system science. The originality of Gaia’s hypothesis lies in the active maintenance of a kind of homeostatic balance in order to maintain optimal conditions for life, even if it is threatened by internal or external events.

The salinity of the oceans for a long time remained constant at the level of 3.4%. Salinity stability is important in oceanic environments because most cells require a fairly constant salinity and generally cannot tolerate values ​​above 5%. The constancy of ocean salinity has long been a mystery; because the salts in the rivers should have increased the salinity of the oceans much more than observed.

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It has recently been suggested that salinity may be strongly influenced by the circulation of seawater through hot basaltic rocks, and that hot water springs may open at mid-ocean ridges. However, the composition of seawater is far from equilibrium, and it is difficult to explain this fact without the influence of organic processes. One explanation, for example, is the formation of salt flats throughout Earth’s history. They are believed to be created by bacterial colonies that fix ions and heavy metals during their life cycle.

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Dokuz Eylül üniversitesi Yatay Geçiş

In fact, the reason we are asking for financial support is very simple: because the Tree of Evolution is our only profession, our only source of income. Unlike many, we do not make the articles and videos you see on social networks as a hobby, but in our spare time. Therefore, in order to support this business, we need to generate income.

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The composition of the atmosphere remains fairly constant, creating ideal conditions for life. All gases except the noble gases in the atmosphere are produced or processed by organisms. The Gaia hypothesis states that the Earth’s atmospheric composition is maintained in a dynamically stable state due to the presence of life. Stagnation of the Earth’s atmosphere is not the result of chemical equilibrium, as it is on non-living planets.

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Oxygen is the second most reactive nonmetal, after fluorine, and must normally combine with gases and minerals in the atmosphere and Earth’s crust. Since methane is highly flammable in an oxygen atmosphere, there should be no residual methane (up to 100,000 tons per year). Dry air in the Earth’s atmosphere contains approximately 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.039% carbon dioxide, and other gases, including a small amount of methane, by volume Although air content and atmospheric pressure vary in different layers, it is known that air suitable for the survival of land plants and land animals exists only in the earth’s troposphere or artificial atmospheres. Oxygen is a very important element for the vital activity of organisms that have a constant need for it.

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Since life began on Earth, the energy supplied by the Sun has increased by 25-30%; however, the surface temperature of the planet remained within habitable levels and reached low or high levels quite regularly. Lovelock also hypothesized that methanogens produced high levels of methane in the early atmosphere, giving it an appearance similar to that found in petrochemical smog, which in some ways resembles the atmosphere of Titan (Saturn’s largest moon).

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This suggests that it tends to shield UV radiation until the ozone shield is formed and maintains some degree of homeostasis. Snowball Earth studies of the “oxygen shocks” and methane depletion that caused the Earth to become a near-solid snowball during the Huron, Sturt, and Marino/Varanger Ice Ages indicate that the Cryogens end through biogeophysiological processes. agrees well with Lovelock’s hypothesis, contradicts Gaia’s hypothesis.

The recycling of the greenhouse gas CO2, described below, plays a key role in keeping Earth’s temperature within acceptable limits for life. Inspired by the Gaia hypothesis, the CLAW hypothesis suggests the existence of a functional feedback loop between ocean ecosystems and Earth’s climate. Specifically, the hypothesis suggests that certain phytoplankton that produce dimethyl sulfide respond to climate change and that these responses lead to a negative feedback loop that acts to stabilize the temperature of Earth’s atmosphere. Currently, this homeostatic balance of Gaia is being challenged by the increasing human population and the impact of their activities on the environment. The spread of greenhouse gases can cause Gaia’s negative feedback to become a homeostatic positive feedback. According to Lovelock, this could lead to accelerated global warming and mass extinctions.

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A mathematical model by James Lovelock and Andrew Watson that shows how temperature regulation can occur through the interaction of organisms with their environment; He developed Daisyworld. The purpose of the model is to show that feedback mechanisms can evolve from the actions or activities of the organisms of interest instead of classical mechanisms of group selection.

Daisyworld explores the energy budget of a planet filled with two different types of plants, black and white daisies. Black daisies, the color of daisies, absorb light and warm the planet, while white daisies reflect light and cool the planet. Competition between daisies through the effect of temperature on growth rates results in a population balance that tends to favor a near-optimal planetary temperature for daisy growth.

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The importance of many species in an ecosystem broke down two views in the Gaia hypothesis about the role that biodiversity plays in the stability of ecosystems. A system of thought called the “species redundancy hypothesis,” proposed by Australian environmental scientist Brian Walker, suggests that most species contribute little to overall stability, like passengers who play a minor role in the successful flight of an airplane. The hypothesis suggests that each species that is part of a healthy ecosystem is a peg in the plane that represents the ecosystem. The gradual loss of type reflects the progressive loss of the aircraft’s rivets and weakens it until it becomes stable and crashes. Further expansion of the Daisyworld simulation to include rabbits, foxes and other species led to a surprising discovery; It was concluded that as the number of species increases, so do the healing effects, such as restoring temperature across the planet. In addition, the system is proven to be reliable and stable even in the event of failures.

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Daisyworld simulations with stable environmental changes gradually became less diverse over time; on the contrary, mild disturbances caused an explosion of species richness. These findings confirmed the idea of ​​the value of biodiversity.

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This finding was later confirmed by David Tillman and John A. Downing in an 11-year study of species composition, dynamics, and diversity factors in successional and native grasslands in Minnesota, “and that primary production is greater in plant communities that are more diverse and that these plants are more resistant to great droughts”. proved resilient” and stated that;

Gaia scientists consider the participation of living organisms in the carbon cycle as one of the complex processes that provide suitable conditions for life. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (CO

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) is the only significant natural source of volcanic activity, while the only significant removal is precipitation of carbonate rocks. Carbon deposition, solubilization, and fixation are influenced by bacteria and plant roots in soils, where they enhance the circulation of gases, or in coral reefs, where calcium carbonate is strongly deposited on the seafloor. Calcium carbonate is used by living organisms to produce carbon and shells. The external structures of living organisms fall to the bottom of the oceans after death, where they form chalk and limestone deposits.

One such organism is Emiliania huxleyi, an alga that produces large numbers of coccolithophores, which also play an important role in cloud formation. Co

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This is offset by increased coccolithophorid life, which increases the number of coccolithophores, increasing cloud cover, thereby controlling surface temperatures, helping to cool the entire planet, and supporting the precipitation needed by land plants. Recent atmospheric CO

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Lichens and other organisms

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